Aging a Deer - USGS
Anderson, S. H. (1991). Managing Our
Wildlife Resources 2nd ed. Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Inc. Available at www.amazon.com $81.95 new --
$3.00 used or at the public library.
Bellrose, F. C. (1976). Ducks, Geese and Swans
of North America. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Available at the public
library or for purchase at www.amazon.com used $2.03
Benyus, J. M. (1989). Field Guide to Wildlife Habitats of the Eastern United
States. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster. Available at the public
library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $20.95
Bird Finder. Nature Study
Guild www.amazon.com $4.80
Eastern Bluebirds - Connecticut Department of Environmental
Borror, D. J. and R. E. White (1970). A Field
Guide to Insects of North America and Mexico. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $124.75
Burt, W. H. and R. P. Grossenheider (1980). Peterson
Field Guides: Mammals. Boston: Houghton Mufflin Co. Available
at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $13.60
Caughley, G. and A. Sinclair (1994). Wildlife
Ecology and Management. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell
Sciences Inc. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $49.95
Chapman. J. A. and G. A. Feldhamer (Ed.) (1982). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology Management, Economics.
Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press. Available at the public library or for purchase
at www.amazon.com $32.55
"A Citizen's Guide
to the Management of White-tailed Deer in Urban and Suburban New York". NYS DEC (1999).
Conant, R. and J. T. Collins (1991). Peterson Field Guides: Reptiles and
Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Boston Houghton Mifflin
Co. Available at the public library. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $14.28
Hammit, W. and D. Cole (1987). Wildland
and Recreation Ecology and Management. New York: John Wiley
& Sons. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $90.99
Introduction to Wildlife Management.
James Shaw. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $1.00
Johngard, P.A. (1973). Grouse and Quail
of North America. University of Nebraska Press. Available at the public
library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $25.00
Knight, F. (1998). New York Wildlife Viewing Guide. Helena, Montana: Falcon Publishing Inc. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $8.95 used
Knight, R, and K. J. Gutzwiller (1995). Wildlife
and Recreationists. Washington, DC: Island Press. Available
at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $74.99
Kricher, J and G. Morrison. (1988) Peterson
Field Guides: Ecology of Eastern Forests. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company.
Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $13.60.
Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim and A. L. Nelson (1961). American
Wildlife and Plants. A Guide To Wildlife Food Habits. New York, New York:
Dover Publications Inc. Easy to find newer 1985 edition by Martin and Nelson. Available at the public library or
for purchase at www.amazon.com new $94.89
Milne, L. and M. Milne (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American
Insects and Spiders. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Available at the
public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $13.57 used
Missouri Mammals. Missouri
Conservation Commission: Jefferson City, Missouri (Fact sheets on individual species).
Morrison, M. L., B. G. Mannon and R. Williams (1998). Wildlife Habitat Relationships. Madison, Wisconsin:
University of Wisconsin Press. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $45.00
Murie, O. J. (1982). A Field Guide To Animal Tracks. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $13.57
Niering, W. A. (1989). The Audubon Society
Nature Guides: Wetlands. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Available
at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $2.95
Schemnitz, S.D. (Ed.) (1980). The Wildlife
Management Techniques Manual, 4th ed. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society,
Inc. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com $6.49
Searfoss, G. (1995). Skulls and Bones.
Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com new $14.56
Stokes, D. (1979). Stokes Nature Guides, A Guide to Bird Behavior, Volumes I used $1.96 , II used $1.34, & III used $2.20. Little, Brown
and Company (Canada).
Sutherland, W. J. AND D.A. Hill (1995). Managing Habitats for Conservation. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. Available at the public library or for
purchase at www.amazon.com new $50.00
Sutton, A. and M. (1990). The Audubon
Society Nature Guides: Eastern Forest. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
Inc. Available at the public library or for purchase at www.amazon.com used $2.00
Track Finder. Nature Study
Guild www.amazon.com $4.80
NYS DEC Endangered Program
NYS Fishing Regulations Guide
NYS Hunting and Trapping Guide
NYS DEC Bureau of Wildlife
Abiotic a non-living factor in an environment i.e. light, water, temperature.
Accipiter A hawk of the genus Accipiter, characterized by short wings and a long
Adaptation - Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes
better suited to its habitat. This process takes place over many generations, and is one of the basic phenomena
Aestivation dormancy, generally seasonally.
Amphibian - Typically, an animal that, when young, lives in an aquatic habit and
breathes by gills; as an adult, an amphibian lives primarily in a terrestrial habitat breathing by lungs and through
moist glandular skin. For example, frogs and salamanders are amphibians.
Aquatic growing, living in or frequenting water
Arboreal tree dweller
Autotroph an organism capable of manufacturing its own food by synthesis of inorganic
materials, as in photosynthesis.
Bag Limit - The maximum number of animals allowed to be taken by an individual in
regulated hunting. For example, a deer hunter may kill one deer per year.
Bergmans rule among forms of a particular species, body size tends to be larger
in the cooler regions of its range and smaller in the warmer regions.
Bioaccumulation - refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides,
or other organic chemicals in an organism.
Biomagnification - is the increase in concentration of a substance, such as the
pesticide DDT, that occurs in a food chain.
Bird Migration - Bird migration is the regular seasonal journey undertaken by many
species of birds. Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability, habitat or weather.
Brood the offspring of a bird just hatched.
Browse (v) to eat the twigs and leaves of woody plants; (n) commonly used in wildlife
management to signify brushy plants utilized by deer.
Buteo Any of the various hawks of the genus Buteo, characterized by broad wings
and broad, rounded tails.
Carapace the upper or dorsal surface of a turtle's shell.
Carnivore An animal belonging to the order Carnivora, including predominantly
Carrion the bodies of dead animals usually found in nature in a decaying state.
Carrying capacity The number of wildlife species that a given unit of habitat
will support without damage to the habitat.
Cast to regurgitate indigestible prey remains
Chronic Wasting Disease - is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer,
white-tailed deer, elk, and moose. TSEs are caused by unusual infectious agents known as prions.
Circadian designating a biological period of about 24 hours.
Climax stage the final stage of plant succession.
Colony Collapse Disorder - is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or
European honey bee colony abruptly disappear.
Consumptive use any use that involves activity resulting in the loss of wildlife
Contiguous forests Forests that share an edge or boundary, touching.
Coverts One or more of a group of feathers covering the bases of the longer main
feathers of a bird's wings or tail.
Covey a small group or flock, often a family group, of birds such as quail.
Crepuscular appearing or becoming active at twilight or dawn.
Clutch eggs laid and incubated by a female bird per nesting.
Corridor areas of continuous habitat that permit animals to travel securely from
one habitat to another.
Dabbling ducks duck species that principally feed in shallow water by tipping
up or dabbling on the surface.
Depredation the act of preying upon. Mostly wildlife damage to farmers crops.
Diurnal A term used to describe an animal that is most active by day.
Diving ducks duck species that feed principally by diving below the surface.
Dorsal of or pertaining to the upper surface.
Dump nest eggs deposited by more than one female in a single nest.
Ecological Niche - The role played by an organism in a biological community: its
food preferences, its requirements for shelter; its special behaviors, and the timing of its activities (nocturnal
or diurnal). The ecological niche of organism has little to do with where it is found but much more to do with
its function or role in the community (for example, predator or decomposer) and how it performs that function.
Edge the place where two or more different plant communities, successional stages
or vegetative stages come together or meet.
Endangered - A species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant
portion of its range. (A threatened species is one that is likely to become endangered.)
Endemic confined to a certain area or region.
Estivation a state of inactivity during prolonged periods of drought or high
Extirpation - is the condition of a species (or other taxon) which ceases to exist
in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. (Also see local extinction.)
Exotic Not a native species. Was either introduced or escaped.
Fauna - Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period considered
as a group.
Flora - A list of the species of plants that make up the vegetation for an area.
Flyway fly routes established by migratory birds.
Food chain - The transfer of food energy from organisms in one nutritional level
to those in another.
Food web a complex and interlocking series of food chains.
Forest Game Game species that are managed by the DNR whose habitat needs are found
mainly in forests. These species in Maryland include wild turkey, ruffed grouse, gray and red foxes and squirrels.
Furbearers Various animals that have a thick coat of soft hair covering their
Game animal - Legal designation for animals which may be managed and hunted only
Guard hairs Long, coarse hairs that forms a protective coating over an animal's
Harriers Any of the various slender, narrow-winged hawks of the genus Circus,
which prey on small animals.
Harvest proportion or number of a wildlife population brought to bag by hunters;
in wildlife management, killing an animal.
Herbivore An animal that eats plants.
Herpetology The scientific study of reptiles and amphibians as a branch of Zoology.
Hibernation passing the winter or a portion of it in a state of sleep
Imprinting - A rapid learning process by which a newborn or very young animal establishes
a behavior pattern of recognition and attraction to another animal of its own kind or to a substitute or an object
identified as the parent.
Indigenous a naturally occurring species.
Insectivore a mammal or organism that feeds on insects.
Inventory the process of counting or identifying animals.
Keel a ridge down the back or along the plastron of a turtle or a longitudinal
ridge on a dorsal scale in certain snakes.
Lateral pertaining to the side.
Limiting factor Anything that affects a species population. It could result from
causes in nature as well as human activities. Examples include food, water, shelter, space, disease, predation,
climatic conditions, pollution, hunting, poaching and accidents.
Litter the number of young born with each birthing.
Local extinction - Local extinction is the condition of a species (or other taxon)
which ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as
extirpation. Local extinction's are contrasted with global extinctions.
Lyme Disease - is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It is spread by infected
ticks. Symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue, depression, and a circular skin rash. Left untreated, later
symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms
are eliminated by antibiotics.
Mandibles either the upper or lower part of the beak in birds.
Mange - is a class of persistent contagious skin diseases caused by parasitic mites.
Marsupial A mammal of the order Marsupialia that includes kangaroos, opossums,
bandicoots and wombats. These females have pouches that contain mammary glands and that shelter the young until
Melanistic Abnormally dark pigmentation of the skin or other tissues. Black pigmented.
Microfauna - Very small animals, barely visible to the eye.
Molt the process of shedding or replacing feathers.
Monogamous term used when one male breeds with one female.
Mortality (death rate) the number of animals that die each year.
Natality (birth rate) ability of a population to increase; reproductive rate.
Natural selection - is the process by which traits become more or less common in
a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism
Niche that part of a habitat particularly suited to the requirements of a given
Nocturnal active by night; the opposite of diurnal.
Nonconsumptive use any use that does not directly kill wildlife, i.e. bird watching,
Omnivore An animal or organism that feeds on both animal and plant matter.
Owl pellets - Regurgitated, undigested bones, fur, feathers compacted into a pellet.
Ornithology The scientific study of birds as a branch of zoology.
Parasite an organism that lives by deriving benefit (usually doing harm) from another organism.
Passerine Birds of the order Passeriformes, which include perching birds and songbirds
such as the jays, blackbirds, finches, warblers and sparrows.
Pelage The coat of a mammal, consisting of hair, fur, wool or other soft covering,
as distinct from bare skin.
Philopatry annual homing to the same nesting area and often the same nest site.
Polygamy or polygyny term used when a male animal breeds with many females.
Population the number of a particular species in a defined area.
Population dynamics factors regulating population levels including natality, productivity
Plastron The ventral surface of the shell of a turtle or tortoise.
Raptor - Eagles, hawks, owls, and other birds that are predators (preying upon other
Rare species - Species that populate a site or region infrequently, or in very low
numbers. Rare species are not necessary endangered.
Recruitment addition of a number of young to an adult population of breeders.
Riparian area the area of influence between upland habitats and aquatic habitats.
SAV (submerged aquatic vegetation) vascular plants that live and grow completely
Scat The excrement droppings of an animal.
Scavenger - An animal that eats the dead remains and wastes of other animals and
Species populations of animals that possess common characteristics and freely
interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.
Species diversity - The number of different species and their relative abundance
in a given area.
Species richness the number of wildlife species found in a given area.
Taxonomy the science of the classification of animals or plants.
Territory - An area used for breeding, feeding, or both, which is defended by an
animal against others of the same species.
Threatened species - A species that, in nature, is abundant, but because of a decline
in its numbers, may become endangered.
Torpor temporary loss of all or part of the power of motion.
Trophic Cascade - occur when predators in a food web suppress the abundance of their
prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation (or herbivory if the intermediate trophic level
is an herbivore).
Trophic Dynamics - is the system of trophic levels, which describes the position
that an organism occupies in a food chain: what an organism eats, and what eats the organism.
Trophic level a feeding level in the food chain of an ecosystem characterized
by organisms that occupy a similar functional position in the ecosystem.
Upland game Game species that are managed by the DNR whose habitat needs are usually
found in upland areas.
Ventral of or pertaining to the lower surface.
Waterfowl water birds, usually referring to ducks, geese and swans.
West Nile - is a virus of the family Flaviviridae. It is found in both tropical
and temperate regions. It mainly infects birds, but is known to infect humans, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks,
skunks, squirrels, and domestic rabbits. The main route of human infection is through the bite of an infected mosquito.
Approximately 90% of West Nile Virus infections in humans are without any symptoms.[
White Nose Syndrome - wildlife health crisis affecting bats, the white-nose syndrome,
is named for the white fungus evident on the muzzles and wings of affected bats.
Zoologist - A specialist who studies the animal kingdom with respect to the behavior
of individual animals, species, or both.